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The other engines

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Covenant between the Anonymous Society of the New Barsanti and Matteucci Engine and f. Filippo Cecchi and f. Giovanni Antonelli. After the death of Eugenio Barsanti on June 2 1864, an assembly of the Members of the Anonymous Society of the New Barsanti and Matteucci Engine was held. During the assembly, it was decided to entrust the technical direction of the Society to f. Cecchi and f. Antonelli, who had contributed to the realization of the Barsanti and Matteucci engines. In the letter sent to the Society by f. Antonelli and f. Cecchi one can read" the Executive Board... has unanimously deliberated... that Father Giovanni Antonelli and Father Filippo Cecchi, Professors, are nominated Technical Directors in surrogate of the deceased Professor Father Barsanti". Antonelli and Cecchi both accepted the proposal and on October 12 of the same year the covenant was signed.
The Antonelli and Cecchi Engine. After Antonelli and Cecchi's nomination as technical directors of the Society replica orologi italia, a new prototype of an internal combustion engine was set up in the workshop of the Society; the engine was supposed to be used in locomotives, in substitution of steam engines, as one can deduce from the results of a comparison of the estimate fuel consumption of the engine with some steam engines and from some sketches in the Ximenian Observatory Archive. The construction of the engine parts was ordered from the Benini Foundry of Florence and from the Ansaldo Workshop of Sampierdarena. The engine was ready at the beginning of September 1865. The tests done on the prototype evidenced the convenience (up to 50%) of the use of a gas engine with respects to a steam engine. From these tests, Antonelli and Cecchi distinguished themselves as capable of realizing a 20-25 HP gas engine.

The project of this engine was immediately initiated, contemporaneously to an engine of minor power (3 - 4 HP), as requested by a member of the Society Council. Antonelli and Cecchi's sketches probably refer to this project.
Advertisement (1863) of La Societa' des moteurs Lenoir-Gautier et Cie a' Paris. At the end of 1859, the French mechanic Lenoir had tested a internal direct gas combustion engine; the engine worked without compression and with two phases, intake-detonation-expansion and exhaust. The engine was officially presented in 1860 and immediately astounded Parisian scientists. "Ximenian Manuscript" kept at the Ximenian Observatory, the hypothesis of the use of a direct action engine was abandoned due to its scarce economic convenience compared to a steam engine, by its scarce power performance and last but not least, for the discontinuity due to the violence of the mechanical shocks which the engine underwent during the explosion of the gaseous mixture..

From the Acts of the Georgofili Royal Accademy one can find a note stating that during the assembly of September 3 1865 the same Accademy accepted Cav. Domenico Bargigli's deposit of the sealed envelope which contained: Studies of a new engine accompanied by a description and a sketch. The engine constructed by Domenico Bargigli, Studies of an engine using compressed air, was inspired by the second system described in the memories deposited in the same Accademy by Barsanti and Matteucci on June 5 1853: to obtain in the same way air compression, but the object used to thrust the air through an additional tube with a valve that opens inside out in an air chamber, from which, as it happens with steam, one could let it pass in one or two double effect cylinders that do not differ from the ones found actually in machines in use nowadays... After the death of Barsanti and his substitution as technical directors of the New Engine Society of the Piarist Antonelli and Cecchi, Matteucci continued studying the engine and imagining new solutions that hi proposed to the President of the New Engine Society with a letter dated January 15 1866, but the response never arrived.

The engine was supposed to be modified based on a certificate of an Italian Patent of June 25 1866 no. 3096 granted to Felice Matteucci and colleagues at Florence entitled: Igneous-pneumatic replica rolex datejust orologi engine and registered on the Industrial Bulletin of the Reign of Italy Vol. VI No. 485.

The U.S. patent of Otto and Langen (Stamp of the Patent kept at the Ximenian Observatory). At the Universal Expo of Paris in 1867 Nikolaus August Otto and Eughen Langen of Koln presented an internal combustion engine and won the gold medal among the fourteen projects presented there. On August 13 of the same year the two Prussian scientists were granted a patent in the United States. The Otto and Langen engine was very similar to Barsanti and Matteucci's, reproducing its function and many technical solutions as one can note from a profound examination of the patent sketches and comparing them to the ones relative to the engine built at the Benini Foundry in 1856. A rack and a toothed pinion constituted the mechanical system, which transformed the alternating motion of the piston to the circular motion of the flywheel, with jack, that is, identical to the mechanism used by Barsanti and Matteucci. After Giovanni Battista Babacci had abandoned the New Engine Society in 1862, he continued to study the internal combustion engine. So much so that on April 5 1868 he was granted and Italian Patent No. 3849 entitled: New systems for gas engines, Babacci system and registered in the Industrial Bulletin of the Reign of Italy on May 7 1868 Vol. VIII No. 195.

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